Numerology: Or What Pythagoras Wrought


Numerology, the study of the spiritual significance of numbers, has a long and fascinating history. While its origins can be traced to the ancient Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, and Hebrews, modern numerology really begins with the Greek mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras in the 6th century BCE.

Pythagoras was obsessed with numbers and discovered many mathematical truths, including the Pythagorean theorem. He believed numbers were divine and held the secrets of the universe and of human nature. His ideas laid the groundwork for numerology as we know it today.

In this lengthy blog post, we’ll explore the origins and evolution of numerology over the centuries, the core beliefs and principles behind it, and the different numerology systems in use. We’ll also look at the science behind numerology and whether there is any validity to it. There’s a lot of ground to cover, so let’s dive in!

A Brief History of Numerology

While Pythagoras popularized numerology in the Western world, the foundations were laid centuries before by ancient cultures like the Babylonians, Egyptians, Chinese, and Hebrews. They observed mathematical patterns in nature and ascribed symbolic meanings to numbers.

Ancient Origins

  • Babylonians used numbers in divination and ascribed astrological significance to numbers.
  • Egyptians used numbers pragmatically but saw symbolic meanings in certain numbers.
  • Chinese developed a well-documented numerological scheme, finding meaning in words and names based on numbers and sums.
  • Hebrew mystics like the Kabbalists used gematria to find hidden meanings and esoteric wisdom in holy texts by converting words and names into numbers.

Pythagoras synthesized these diverse threads by proposing that numbers underlie all of reality. He fused math, science, mysticism and philosophy, inspiring Plato, Aristotle and others to explore metaphysics and number symbolism. While Pythagorean teachings faded after his death, his ideas flowed down through the centuries to inspire numerology’s development.

Revival in the Early 20th Century

In the early 20th century, numerology underwent a revival in the West. Key figures included:

  • Dr. Julian Stenton: published influential book Numerology: Facts and Secrets (1920) which codified a system still used today.
  • Dr. F.H. Hafford: linked numerology to the new science of psychology. Published book Numerology Workbook for Interpreting Character (1931).
  • Florence Campbell: published Numerology: Key to Your Inner Self in 1938, using numerology concepts for guidance in relationships and careers.

These works renewed public interest in numerology, establishing it as a subject of serious study and application after centuries of dormancy following Pythagoras. New metaphysical movements like Theosophy also contributed to numerology’s revival.

Core Principles and Beliefs

Numerology is based on some core principles derived from Pythagoras’ teachings:

  • Universal vibrations – Numbers represent vibrational energies inherent in nature. Different numbers signify different qualities.
  • Meaning of numbers – Certain numbers have innate meanings and properties. 1 is beginnings, 9 is endings, 7 spirituality, etc.
  • Numeric codes – Letters and names have intrinsic numeric values. Analyzing these values yields insight.
  • Mathematical patterns – There are observable patterns among digits that have symbolic significance.
  • Number resonance – Some numbers are in “resonance” with us and influence our character and destiny.
  • Calculation methods – Using different numerological calculations, we can uncover hidden aspects of personality, relationships, the future, and more.

While the metaphysical foundations may be debatable, numerology appeals to those seeking deeper order and meaning behind names, birthdates, addresses, words, and names. Analyzing these numeric codes is meant to reveal life paths, compatibility, and hidden truths.

Major Numerology Systems

There are various numerological systems used today, differing in their core calculation methods:

Chaldean Numerology

  • Ancient Babylonian system codified by Dr. Stenton in 1920s book.
  • Uses single digit and double digit numbers (e.g 11, 22, 33).
  • Double digit numbers called Master Numbers believed to signify higher purpose or ability.
  • Uses a persona number, destiny number, life path number, and more.

Pythagorean Numerology

  • Simpler system using only single digit numbers (all added to base 9).
  • Devised by Pythagoras but formalized only in 20th century by Dr. Hafford.
  • Uses three core numbers: Life Path, Expression, and Soul Urge numbers.
  • Very popular today and used to find life purpose, compatibility, and auspicious timing.

Kabbalistic Numerology

  • Hebrew system based on gematria or assigning numbers to letters and words.
  • Seeks hidden meanings in words and phrases by converting letters to numbers.
  • Reveals deeper truths in the Torah, prophecies, historical events, and names.
  • Also used to analyze personality traits based on name and birthdate calculations.

There are also numerous offshoots like Indian, Chinese, Alexandrian, and Semitic numerology, using varying methods. However, most contemporary numerologists synthesize elements of Chaldean, Pythagorean and Kabbalistic systems for readings.

Analyzing Names and Birthdates

The two central applications of numerology are analyzing names and birthdates. Here’s a brief look at what insights are drawn from each.


  • The core letters are assigned numeric values 1-9 based on Pythagorean/Chaldean cyphers.
  • Certain calculations are then done on the sum of these values to reveal personality traits, energy, compatibility with partners etc.
  • Popular name numbers include Life Path, Soul Urge, Destiny, Personality, and Inner Dreams.
  • The same name can yield varying insights in different systems based on how the numeric values are calculated.


  • The birthdate is vital in numerology for life path and destiny number readings.
  • The numerical values of the day, month and year are analyzed using different cyphers.
  • Life path number reveals broad life lessons and purposes based on birthday.
  • Other variants look at pinnacles, challenges, and cycles determined by the day someone was born.

While names and birthdates are central focuses, other applications include analyzing addresses, business names, significant dates, and more. The goal is always to uncover meaning encoded in the numbers.

Scientific Perspectives on Numerology

Numerology has understandably received skepticism from mainstream science over the years. Critics point out that it depends on arbitrary methods of converting words and names into numbers. Results also vary between different numerological systems. However, some interesting perspectives have emerged:

  • Swiss psychologist Carl Jung studied synchronicity or coincidences with meaning. Is numerology based on observable synchronicity?
  • Physicist Wolfgang Pauli examined archetypes, symmetry, and “unitary reality” behind matter. Could numbers represent intrinsic archetypes?
  • Studies suggest we associate common symbols, words, and patterns with specific numbers automatically. Perhaps cultural associations influence numerological systems.

While numerology can seem abstract or contrived, we can’t rule out that mathematical patterns and codes may underlie fundamental realities in ways science doesn’t yet fully grasp. There may be genuine phenomena behind numerology even if the specific systems and mechanisms require further study.

Applications of Numerology Readings

Whatever its source, people consult numerologists today for many practical reasons:

  • Insight about personality, inner needs, and emotional interactions.
  • Guidance on big life decisions around careers, relationships, moves.
  • Identifying dates, times, and years with the most positive energies.
  • Understanding past cycles and transitions experienced.
  • Gaining perspective on family and relationship dynamics.
  • Recognizing abilities, aptitudes, and untapped talents.
  • Seeing life challenges, growth areas, and lessons to be learned.

Rather than divination, modern numerology largely serves as a framework for self-reflection, discernment, and gaining perspective to make more informed choices.


While the metaphysical tenets of numerology may remain unproven, it continues to fascinate as it has for over 2500 years. Few esoteric systems have such ancient roots stretching across so many cultures. There are evident patterns in numbers and nature we recognize intuitively, even if we cannot yet fully explain them through science alone.

Perhaps philosopher Plotinus captured numerology’s deeper appeal: “It is by the One that all beings are beings. […] It is the principle of all things, the God above all [and] the measure of all things.” The right numbers still seem to have significance and power for many. Numerology may not be everything Pythagoras claimed, but his core idea that numbers underlie reality still resonates.


Campbell, Florence. Numerology: Key to Your Inner Self. Macmillan, 1938.

Forrest, Steven. The Origins of Numerology. Singapore: Partridge Publishing, 2017.

Hafford, F.H. Numerology Workbook for Interpreting Character. Metaphysical Publishers, 1931.

Pauli, Wolfgang. Atom and Archetype. Princeton University Press, 2001.

Stenton, Julian. Numerology: Facts and Secrets. Metaphysical Book Co, 1920.

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